مصادر مياه الصرف الصحي

What are the sources of wastewater?

Trying to find new sources that meet the needs of the population with fresh water, is one of the most important solutions that governments seek. Therefore, knowing the sources of wastewater and ways to treat it is necessary at the present time. Where the development witnessed by various countries of the world, the increase in the population and the rise in the standard of living have led to an increase in the demand for water.

One of those sources is wastewater treatment. Where this water can be used in several areas mentioned in this article.

Water is used for many different purposes. Then, that wastewater is directed towards the sewage, which is transferred by the sewage network to the treatment plants, which work on conducting several operations for the purpose of eliminating the negative effects and the attendant risks of that water in the event that it is not treated. In this article, we mentioned the importance of establishing a wastewater treatment plant.

 

The evolution of wastewater treatment technology over the years

The wastewater treatment process benefits from the provision of water and fertilizers. The devices and equipment used in the treatment processes have witnessed great development in recent times. One of the important reasons for the development of methods of treating this water is its impact on public health and the environment. As the treatment was limited to the removal of suspended and floating materials and disposal of wastewater. Decaying organic matter and some pathogenic microorganisms.

As a result of the progress of science in the field of chemistry, biochemistry, and microbiology. And the increase in knowledge of the impact of pollutants in the environment. whether in the short or long term, as well as industrial progress and the production of new materials, made it necessary to develop methods for treating that water for the purpose of removing most Pollutants that were not easy to remove by old methods. Wastewater is collected from several sources, and the quantities collected depend on the source and the type of collection system used in it.

 

Sewage water sources

  • Water resulting from domestic, commercial, and service uses such as schools, hotels, and restaurants.
  • Also water for industrial uses.
  • Wastewater from agricultural uses.
  • Rainwater in case of merging the sewage network with the rainwater drainage network.
  • Water leaking from groundwater.

The importance of sewage treatment

Wastewater resulting from human consumption and discharged into sewage is one of the most productive sources of wastewater. And for the purpose of measuring the absorptive capacity of the stream. It is necessary to adopt a realistic design number to adequately accommodate future changes within the life of the design stream. As well as suitable for the current conditions.

Wastewater in general consists of about (99%) of water and about (1%) of impurities and harmful pollutants. This is due to environmental pollution and most communicable diseases that pose a threat to public health. Hence, this water must be disposed of by transporting it away from cities and then treating it in treatment plants to remove organic and bacterial pollution and to obtain pure water that can be used again.

 

Pollutants present in sewage water

  • stuck material.
  • Biodegradable organic materials.
  • Disease-causing organisms.
  • Plant nutrients such as (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium).
  • Degradable organic materials.
  • Heavy metals
  • Dissolved mineral salts.

 

The stages in which sewage is treated

The first stage:
Natural treatment, which includes the disposal of waste and suspended impurities of various kinds, in addition to the disposal of suspended sand.
Dual-stage:
It includes biological treatment, in which biological oxygen is dissolved in water to revive aerobic bacteria, and it includes sedimentation basins through which pure water is separated from sludge.
Triple stage:
It includes filtration of treated water bilaterally by sand filters with the addition of chlorine gas for sterilization before and after filtration to ensure the extermination of all viruses, bacteria, and worms.
In order for the water properties to conform to international specifications to be used for agricultural purposes. the remaining free chlorine concentration ranges from 1-2 mg/l.