How do we maintain water quality?
The concept of water quality in evaluating the quality of water and determining the concentration of collecting its components and the additives that are added to it, then comparing the results of this concentration with the purpose for which this water will be used, for example, Distilled water is considered one of the finest forms of water, but it is not suitable for all organisms, and for this, it is not possible Measuring quality without specifying the purpose for which it is used. Water that is used in homes for drinking and preparing food is different from that used for irrigating agricultural lands, or used in fish farms, or used in raising animals.
Standards for measuring water quality
First: Physical measures of water quality:
- Temperature: it directly affects the biological processes in the water, as the increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water, an increase in the metabolic rate of living organisms, and an acceleration of their reproduction.
- Turbidity: Solid bodies that do not dissolve in water, such as algae, sand particles, and bacteria, lead to turbidity in the color of the water, which leads to reducing the possibility of sunlight entering the water bodies and thus reducing the photosynthesis process and reducing the concentration of oxygen with an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water. Which negatively affects the organisms that will drink this water.
- The color, taste and, smell of water: It is known that water has no taste, color, or odor, and therefore the presence of any of these qualities means water pollution.
Second: Chemical Measurements of Water Quality:
- Salinity: Salts are usually found in water in a natural way that results from the dissolution of salts in the soil, or in an unnatural way by human action through the use of chemical fertilizers or mixing potable water with the sewage water.
- Nitrates and phosphates: Increasing the proportion of nitrates and phosphates in the water leads to the rapid multiplication of plant organisms in the water, especially algae, which reduces the photosynthesis of plants, and the concentration of oxygen, so most of the organisms that live in the water die, and the increase in nitrates in drinking water leads to To contact with hemoglobin found in red blood cells and impede the transfer of oxygen in the body and the incidence of cyanosis, especially in children.
- Oxygen: Organisms that live in water need a certain concentration of oxygen, as the minimum concentration of life in water reaches 4 mg/L, and organisms cannot live at a lower concentration.
- pH: It means the percentage of the acidity or basicity of water, where the pH is measured in the range 0-14, and when the ratio of pH = 7, it is neutral, but if it is less than 7, it is acidic, and if it is more than 7 it is basic, the pH of water Drinkable range between 6.5 and 8.5 degrees.
- Water hardness: Water hardness means the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions combined in the water. The higher the concentration of these ions, the more hardness the water increases, and thus the increase in salt deposits in the water.
- Heavy metals: The minerals in water affect human health, whether they are natural minerals resulting from the melting of rocks, or industrial minerals resulting from wastewater.
Third: Biological Standards:
The principle of biological criterion is based on measuring the percentage of living organisms, especially invertebrates, which are considered the most sensitive organisms against pollution, that live and reproduce within the aquatic medium, where the biological coefficient must range between 0 and 10, and the higher the value from six to ten, that is a criterion for the quality of water High.
Fourth: Radiological Measurements:
It means radioactive materials, which lead to water pollution, and the source of these radioactive materials may be the melting of radioactive rocks or throwing waste radioactive materials resulting from factories, hospitals, or laboratories in the water, and this matter is considered very dangerous because of its impact on the genetic material of the human DNA and causing mutations in it. , or having cancer.
Basics of water quality and safety control
In order to maintain the quality of water, we must make sure that there are some foundations
Compliance with relevant laws and legislation.
Monitoring water quality and verifying the accuracy of laboratory test results.
– Verify the efficiency of the devices used to measure water quality.
– Checking the safety of chemicals and portable field testing tools used to measure water quality.
– Continuous follow-up of the efficiency and development of the performance of employees to conduct these examinations.